Friday, November 2, 2012

Goal-directed Instructional Design Plan - English Research
Emily Mullins
  1. 1. A problem or a need – there must be a problem of practice or an educational need that should be addressed during the lesson.
  2. As we finish the unit for Animal Farm, our research-based character sketch project requires 10th grade students to be able to identify and then utilize credible sources from the Internet. This has been a huge obstacle in the past. Students often immediately go to google, or use sources that allows for editing such as wikipedia. They will need to reapply this knowledge during the Julius Caesar unit.
  • 2. A real-world performance – how the learning objective fit into a real-world activity or need.
  • The ability to research, and most specifically to use the Internet to find credible sources is a tool students can use for the rest of their life. It is a wonderful skill to be able to discern which sources are credible and which are not. Students are already inundated with a constant flow of information, and they need to learn to analyze what they are being presented with. Research will absolutely be a part of their lives in that they will need to do research when buying a car, buying a house, etc. Having practice with research using credible house will prepare them for the future. They can transfer the knowledge that comes with practicing using credible sources to many other areas of their lives, not just for research papers for a grade. 
  • 3. An instructional objective – the objectives are based on the final outcome, activity or test. These objectives will each be different for the four types of knowledge; performing skills, recalling facts, identifying examples of concepts, and applying principles. 
    1. a. Students will take notes on what requirements credible sources must have. 
    2. b. Students will learn the basics about the Internet including web addresses, types of websites, why certain sites are the first to come up when a search is done on google/yahoo, using key terms when searching, etc.
    3. c. Formatively, students will take a quiz on what types of sources are credible or not.
    4. d. Students will go to the Media Center to be instructed on the use of databases from the Michigan Electronic Library, and they will use our media center’s checklist with each source they select to use in their paper. 
    5. e. Students will see sample sources and how they may be cited within an essay, along with a sample works cited page.
    6. f. Students will cite their sources on a works cited paper
    7. g. Students will annotate these selected articles.
    8. h. Students will write a paper using these sources to back up their claims with research.
  • 4. A set of essential content – the basic ideas and skills that will allow the learner to complete the task or understand the content.
  • Students will learn essential Internet terminology in terms of types of web addresses (.org, .edu, .com, etc.) and also how to utilize the Boolean system of searching (or at least in terms of using key words/phrases). Students will need to learn to gauge which sites will produce which types of information. 
  • 5. An evaluation consisting of a test or observation – an assessment, observation or product showing that the objectives can be accomplished in the real-world setting.
  • This can be assessed in a multitude of ways, whether it be formatively or summatively. 
  • One way I can begin to assess their knowledge of whether a source is credible or not, is by filling out the Media Center Credible Source Checklist Documents for each of the sources they plan to use in their Animal Farm Character Sketch Project. at the end of each checklist they then have to explain why the source was, in their own words, credible or not. They need to justify their use of that source in their paper. This will be an indication of how much they have understood since the lectures, use of examples, quiz, etc., but also what needs reiterating. 
  • Using annotations of the full articles found, I can see also that they read the whole article to try and analyze whether or not it served as a credible source. 
  • Perhaps before they turn in their final research project, they could create a Prezi or Glogster as a way to either present the information or have it constructed in a way that they can best understand as if they were to present it. In this way I can see what they took away from the information as being most important in terms of research, the Internet, credibility terminology, searching for sources, and deciding whether or not a source is credible. This could be done individually, in small groups, or in partners and could be presented on days before or in between going to the labs to research.
  • Various discussions will also help me to gauge their level of understanding. 
  • I will be able to fully analyze their ability to find and utilize credible sources once their paper has been turned in. I will be able to see whether the sources were from educational portals or databases of published articles. 
  • 6. A method to help participants learn – the method to deliver the content; a lesson. 
  • 1. Access prior knowledge--what do students normally do when researching? Discuss with them whether they always just go straight to google and click on the first source that is presented to them, or if they try different web searches and key terms to find what they need. Do they know that Wikipedia can be edited? Have they used like sources when they’ve done research in the past. This will allow me to see where students are in terms of their understanding of this concept
  • 2. I have a handout that I use that goes through how sources are credible or not. It has Internet terminology listed, it discusses works cited within a paper but also the bibliography, and it goes through what it means to use sources within the context of school and otherwise. It also discusses accuracy, relevance, and reliability in terms of the websites/sources. This can either be projected with the use of a projector or through a PowerPoint-like presentation. Students will take notes and be able to ask questions as the class goes through to discuss. I will be able to demonstrate examples using my overhead projector as I go. I can also pull up where they can find the Media Center’s credibility checklist on its webpage. 
  • 3. After taking notes, discussing, taking a quiz, and then also discussing those answers, they will go to the lab to create Glogster/Prezi presentations,  individually or in pairs, of this information prior to actually researching. 
  • 4. After about two-tree days of creating their presentations and presenting, I will allow them to go to the lab to begin their research. The requirements will be that for each source they plan on using within their paper, they must also fill out a credibility checklist along with writing their own justification for using that specific source. I believe they will have been scaffolded enough at this point to be responsible for their own learning as they can apply all that we have done thus far. 
  • 5. I will check in the checklists as they go, as I will till them they cannot use a source if I have not signed off on its credibility.
  • 6. Once I have signed off on their 3-4 sources, they can begin creating the actual paper/project. 
    • Motivation:
      • Meaningfulness – content and activities must have meaning for the learner
    • As they know they are going to be doing a large project that requires research and is worth a major portion of their grade, this work should actually seem extremely meaningful because they know it will be of immediate and necessary use. It will also be presented in a way that if they learn this now, all research assignments in their future high school classes will go much more smoothly. 
      • Pleasant consequences – the effects that achieving the goal will have on the learner
    • The students will have a better understanding of what sources are actually reliable and can actually serve the purpose of justifying their claims, because the credible source has also done research. The checklist will make them slow down the process an not just jump on the first webpage they see. They will actually have to read the article/document and justify their use of it. It makes them think about why or why not something can be considered reliable, and just because it is on the internet does not make it true.
      • Novelty – an attention-getting, humorous or curious manner that relates to the useful information in your lesson 
    • I like to use examples about times that people purposely changed Wikipedia pages for their own benefit, or just to be funny. I also have pretty cool cartoons/pictures I use on documents to connect to the topic at hand. 
  • Socialization - a strong motivator for student learning
  • They are all working towards the same goal. They are all in need of coming to understand and being able to apply the concepts being taught in a group discussion format. They can share their own knowledge and help each other through the process. 
  • Audience – For what audience are you designing this lesson? Consider the following:
    • Age
  • High School Sophomores (ages 15-16) in regular English 10.
    • Skill level (including technology skills)
  • As this is a regular English class, it has a wide variety of kids. Some kids may not have a computer at home and simply have difficulties using Microsoft word, and other may be extremely proficient. In this way those who are proficient may finish sooner or completed aspects of the assignment more quickly and thus can help those who are less than proficient. 

    • Prerequisite knowledge (including technology background)
  • Students will have of course have used computers and done research in the past, but perhaps not in the way I am asking them to this time around. Some may know about the Michigan Electronic Library, some may never have heard of it It may depend on their previous English teacher or research assignment and its requirements. Their ability level will be completely different across the board. For another example, some may type quickly because they have a computer at home, while those who don’t, may need more time. 
  • Technology Needs – the computers, software, programs (such as Angel or other CMS’s) printers, equipment, Internet access, time in the computer lab will be needed to successfully complete your technology-rich lesson.
  •     1. Computers
  •     2. Printers
  •     3. High-speed Internet
  •     4. Basic technology and internet schools

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